Dukes County originally consisted of the parent towns of Tisbury, Chilmark, and Edgartown which are now divided into seven towns: Tisbury, West Tisbury, Chilmark, Gay Head, Gosnold, Edgartown, and Oak Bluffs. Tisbury was originally called "Middletown" until it was incorporated as the Town of Tisbury in 1671. It includes (and is now often synonymous with) the village of Vineyard Haven, which was called Holmes Hole until 1871.
West Tisbury was divided from Tisbury in 1892, and all of the early records can be found with the parent town. It contains the original site of the European settlement of Middletown. West Tisbury includes the communities of North Tisbury (originally called "Newtown") and Christiantown. (taken from the Historical Records of Dukes County)
This site is primarily about Cape Cod but because the same glacial forces created Martha's Vineyard it is very relevant.
Some technical but interesting information on the geology of the Vineyard.
The first human residents.
History of Martha's Vineyard
A nice overview by the Vineyard Gazette.
Where many West Tisbury families came from.
Many old West Tisbury families are listed here.
A lot of old West Tisbury names in here too. This site has some lovely photos and interesting information.
Written by Joseph Gibbs Kraetzer, March, 1986
A fascinating and comprehensive collection of early records, genealogy, maps and photographs including Persons in Tisbury reputed to be Lunatics and furiously Mad in 1829.